With one race left this season, Mick Schumacher finished 2nd in the day's second race at Hockenheim circuit to leave him with an unassailable lead.
The last woman to start an F1 grand prix was Italy's Lella Lombardi in 1976.
Max Verstappen had already incurred a five-second penalty after nudging Kimi Raikkonen's Ferrari off the track.
Lewis Hamilton will retain his world title if he wins the next race at Austin and Vettel fails to finish second.
Lewis Hamilton leads Sebastian Vettel by 50 points with five races left this season.
Hamilton controversially took his eighth chequered flag of the season at Sochi last weekend after Mercedes ordered Bottas to give up the lead.
Lewis Hamilton currently has a 50-point advantage over Ferrari's Sebastian Vettel.
Lewis Hamilton made clear that he did not ask for any assistance from team-mate Valtteri Bottas.
It was Lewis Hamilton's third win in Russia, his fifth in six races and the 70th of his career, confirming he has the momentum to clinch a fifth title triumph with five races remaining.
Valtteri Bottas claimed his maiden Formula One victory in Russia last year.
Lewis Hamilton, who is battling Sebastian Vettel of Ferrari to land a fifth world title, refused to talk up his chances.
Mercedes team boss Toto Wolff has warned against complacency as they enter the championship's most critical spell.
Formula One's managing director of motorsports, last week unveiled plans for futuristic new cars to be used from the 2021 season.
Lewis Hamilton led from pole to chequered flag, with Max Verstappen more than eight seconds behind and Sebastian Vettel a distant third.
Max Verstappen of Red Bull will start on the front row for Sunday's race alongside Lewis Hamilton after coming second.
Sebastian Vettel denied the setback would hamper him in Sunday's race.
Vettel has made a series of driving blunders to leave him 30 points behind the Englishman.