Anderson, England's all-time highest wicket-taker in Tests, will miss the inconsequential game owing to "body soreness", according to skipper Alastair Cook.
The pacer had been out since August with a shoulder injury before returning to play the second Test of the five-match series in India.
"Unfortunately Jimmy is ruled out - he's picked up body soreness from the last game. So he's not going to be risked. It is a bit of everything, ankle and shoulder. We are trying to look after him," said captain Cook at the pre-match press conference.
A decision on Stuart Broad will be taken after practice on Thurday. Broad missed the last two Tests with a tendon strain in his right foot, but will look to prove his fitness during England's final training session.
India took an unassailable 3-0 lead in the series with an innings victory in the fourth Test in Mumbai.
(With inputs from PTI)