Veteran duo Julien Benneteau and Nicolas Mahut secured France's decisive win, beating Feliciano Lopez and Marcel Granollers 6-0, 6-4, 7-6 (9/7).
It was the second Grand Slam title for the top-ranked pair of Pierre-Hugues Herbert and Nicholas Mahut after their triumph in the 2015 US Open
Jo-Wilfried Tsonga, Gael Monfils, Richard Gasquet, Julien Benneteau and Gilles Simon had been recalled after helping France beat the Czech Republic 4-1 in the semi-finals in September.
David Ferrer needed just 71 minutes to seal the victory and give himself a shot at adding a second title of 2014 to the trophy he lifted in Buenos Aires.
Swiss Stanislas Wawrinka goes on to tackle France's Julien Benneteau, who put out Poland's Jerzy Janowicz 7-5, 6-1, for a place in the semifinals.
Julien Benneteau, 32, advanced with a 6-1, 6-2 victory over the former top-ranked Lleyton Hewitt. He had to adjust on the fly after the second rain delay, which lasted two hours.
Haase, 26, explained in the daily Volkskrant that, after undergoing the test, he received a letter from the ATP advising him "to get a lawyer" and indicating that he would have to undergo three more tests in the following two weeks.
The second-seeded German, won also won the event 12 years ago, maintained his slim chance of qualifying for next month's ATP finals in London.
The unseeded Sousa defeated fifth seed Julien Benneteau of France 2-6, 7-5, 6-4 in the final.
Tipsarevic has had a dreadful run this season as he has slipped out of the top 10 in a downward trend which has accelerated over the last four months.
Second seed Roger Federer reached the French Open last 16 on Friday with a 6-3, 6-4, 7-5 win over France's 30th seed Julien Benneteau.
Playing on court Suzanne Lenglen, the second seed won in one hour and 22 minutes to extend his career head-to-head to 2-0 against Devvarman, who delivered his best performance on the red clay of Paris by reaching the second round.
In other first-round matches, there were wins for Nikolay Davydenko, qualifier Pablo Andujar and French pair Benoit Paire and Edouard Roger-Vasselin.
Ilija Bozoljac and Nenad shocked the top-ranked doubles team of Bob and Mike Bryan 7-6 (7/5), 7-6 (7/1), 5-7, 4-6, 15-13 to give Serbia a 2-1 lead in their best-of-five tie heading into a pair of Sunday's reverse singles matches.
Del Potro has become the second Argentine to win in Rotterdam after Guillermo Vilas in 1982.
Benneteau won an all-French semi-final in one hour and 50 minutes, beating compatriot Gilles Simon, the fifth seed, 6-4, 7-6 (7/2).
Del Potro will be playing in his 19th final at the ATP level.
Federer was clearly off the boil from the start, beginning with an ace but losing the first game. He was broken three times in the first set in a shocking display from the top seed and heavy crowd favourite at the Ahoy stadium.