Great Britain's Justin Rose pitched the ball 18 inches from the cup on the par-5 18th hole and sank the birdie putt to beat Henrik Stenson by two strokes.
Henrik Stenson produced a major championship record-equalling round of 63 on the final day to win the British Open at Royal Troon
Henrik Stenson sank a 13-foot birdie putt at 15, eagled the par-5 16th with a 20-foot putt and dropped his approach inches from the cup at 18 for a tap-in birdie to finish a six-under par 66.
The $7 million BMW Masters begins this week and Henrik Stenson is the second big name to pull out of Rory McIlroy previously withdrew from the event.
Tiger Woods earned 488.75 world ranking points this year, only 3.65 points ahead of Stenson. Adam Scott was third, more than 100 points behind.
The three-time Asian Tour number one finished ninth on the final Race to Dubai rankings in the recently concluded European season, but the Thai home hero is keen to win for the first time this year in front of his fans at Amata Spring Country Club.
Woods won the Jack Nicklaus Award for the 11th time in his career on the back of his five big wins and return to No. 1 in the world this year.
The Swede became the first European to win both the FedEx Cup and The Tour Championship.
Woods's seven-stroke victory in the elite World Golf Championships event immediately raises expectations that he can end a five-year major title drought at next week's PGA Championship at Oak Hill.
Woods, a 14-time major champion chasing the all-time record of 18 majors won by Jack Nicklaus, is in a commanding position to claim his fifth victory of the season and has sent a message that he is in top form entering next week's PGA Championship, the final major event of the year.
Despite a bogey on his final hole, the par-four ninth, Simpson finished the first round of the World Golf Championships event with a one-stroke lead over Sweden's Henrik Stenson.