PV Sindhu beat Indonesia's Choirunnisa 21-14, 21-9 in a one-sided affair.
This is India's second consecutive defeat in the Sudirman Cup 2019 as they lost 2-3 to Malaysia on Tuesday.
India's hopes of reaching the knockout stage will now rest on their next match against home favourites China on Wednesday.
Saina Nehwal was knocked out after losing 13-21, 23-21, 16-21 against third seed Akane Yamaguchi of Japan in her women's singles quarterfinal.
PV Sindhu, Saina Nehwal and Sameer Verma won their Round of 16 matches in straight sets.
PV Sindhu cruised through her opponent while Saina Nehwal and Sameer Verma had to work extra hard for their wins.
PV Sindhu took just 39 minutes to record a 21-13, 21-19 win over the world number 22.
Mumbai Rockets kickstarted their 2018 Premier Badminton League campaign with a 5-0 win against Delhi Dashers.
BWF World Tour Finals: PV Sindhu sailed into the finals of the tournament with a comfortable win while Sameer Verma was knocked out by Shi Yuqi of China after an hour and eight minutes long battle.
PV Sindhu finished on top of her group after winning all her three matches.
PV Sindhu will next play Beiwen Zhang of the United States in her second match of the BWF World Tour Finals.
Sameer Verma, the defending champion, won the final in an hour and 10 minutes.
Saina Nehwal defeated Ruselli Hartwan in a three-game encounter that lasted 46 minutes.
Saina Nehwal will next meet Ruselli Hartawan of Indonesia for a place in the final.
Third seed Sameer Verma defeated China's Zhao Junpeng 22-20, 21-17 to enter men's singles quarterfinals.
Kidambi Srikanth lost to Kenta Nishimoto while Sameer Verma lost out to Lee Cheuk Yiu in the quarter-finals of Hong Kong Open.
The nail-biting encounter between Kidambi Srikanth and Sameer Verma lasted an hour and 18 minutes.