The fourth-seeded Roddick, who limped into the post-match news conference, quit after wasting a break point.
"I just felt I pushed off, and then Michael (Novotny, ATP trainer) came on court and did some tests and advised that it probably wasn't worth the risk," Roddick said.
Roddick, who is vying for one of the final three spots at the season-ending ATP World Tour Finals in London next month, is more concerned about taking care of his health than qualifying for the eight-man event.
"At this point, my concern is more along the lines of figuring out what we're dealing with," said Roddick, who has finished the last seven seasons ranked in the top 10.
The 22nd-ranked Wawrinka will next play 13th-seeded Radek Stepanek of the Czech Republic in the third round.
"I hope he's going to be fine for the rest of the season," Wawrinka said of Roddick. "For sure, it's not the way you want it to go. But I'll take it and play the next match."
Sixth-seeded Nikolay Davydenko also moved into the third round, improving his perfect record against Igor Kunitsyn of Russia to 5-0 after a 6-4, 6-2 win, and 10th-seeded Fernando Gonzalez of Chile beat Thomaz Bellucci of Brazil 6-3, 6-4.
In the first round, former No. 1 Lleyton Hewitt of Australia beat John Isner of the United States 6-2, 6-4. Hewitt saved both break points he faced.
"This year was always going to be tough purely because I didn't exactly know how the hip was going to bounce back," said Hewitt, who had hip surgery in August 2008. "I've got better as the year has gone on. My hip's got a lot stronger and better, and that makes life a lot easier on the court."
Fifteenth-seeded Tommy Haas beat Benjamin Becker 7-6 (5), 6-4 in an all-German match.
"It's never easy to play a countryman or a player that you like and I'm pretty good friends with," Haas said. "It's never easy, but I think the first set was quite important. I had one good break in the second set and served it out, so I'm pretty happy."
In an all-French match, 11th-seeded Gael Monfils defeated Paul-Henri Mathieu 6-2, 6-2.