Pakistan players have seen themselves involved in match-fixing incidents on more than one occasion. Latest episode being the allegations of spot-fixing in the fourth Test against England at the Lord's. But they are not alone in the league. Here is brief look at the past incidents of fixing.
In 1993, former Australian captain and legend Allan Border alleged that he was offered £500,000 by Mushtaq Mohammed, former Pakistan captain and all-rounder to lose the fifth Test against England at Edgbaston, a claim that was later denied by the former Pakistani cricketer.
In 1995, Aussie cricketers Shane Warne, Tim May and Mark Waugh alleged that then Pakistan captain Salim Malik had offered them 1,30,000 pounds each and asked them to under perform and lose the Karachi Test in 1994. It was because of these allegations that Malik's request to become the head coach of Pakistan cricket team was rejected by PCB.
In 1998, Pakistan bowler Ata-ur-Rahman accused Wasim Akram of offering him Rs 3 lakh to bowl badly against New Zealand in March 1994, a testimony he later withdrew and admitted to perjury in an affidavit signed in London. Following this incident Wasim Akram resigned as the captain of the Pakistan team.
In 1998, Rashid Latif accused Salim Malik, then Pakistan captain, of fixing matches. According to Latif, he was offered 10 lakhs rupees by Salim Malik to underperform and lose a match against New Zealand. He also accused Malik of fixing matches during Pakistan's twin tour of South Africa and Zimbabwe in 1994-95. He alleged that Malik deliberately took wrong decisions at the toss against the playing conditions leading to Pakistan's loss.
In 1998, Australia's greats Shane Warne and teammate Mark Waugh confessed that they had been passing on weather and pitch information to an Indian bookie called "John the Bookmaker" during the Singer Cup in Sri Lanka in 1994. They, however, claimed that they refused to divulge more strategic information like team tactics and player selection policies. Both the players were fined by the Cricket Australia.
In 1998, Pakistan Cricket Board appointed Malik Mohammad Qayyum to conduct a Judicial Enquiry into match fixing allegations against Pakistan between September 1998 and May 2000. Following which in May 24, 2000 the judicial commission found former captain Salim Malik and Medium pacer Ata-Ur-Rahman guilty of fixing matches and recommended life ban for the two. Six other players - Waqar Younis, Wasim Akram, Inzamam-ul-Haq, Saeed Anwar, Mushtaq Ahmed and Akram Raza were fined in the episode.
On June 12, 2000, South Africa cricket chief Ali Bacher said that he had been told by former Pakistan cricket chief executive Majid Khan about the widespread match fixing nexus in Pakistan and that two World Cup matches in 1999, involving Pakistan against India and Bangladesh were fixed. Bacher also gave evidence to the South African Government related to the enquiry. The claims were later rubbished by all the three boards of the Asian countries involved.
Bacher also says that an Indian bookmaker had told him that Pakistani umpire Javed Akhtar was "on his payroll'' when he made eight crucial decisions against South Africa in their decisive Test against England at Leeds in 1998.
On 7 April 2000: Delhi police revealed they had a recording of a conversation between South Africa captain Hanse Cronje and bookie Sanjay Chawla, in which they learnt that Cronje accepted money to throw matches. On 11 October Cronje was banned from playing or coaching cricket for life.
He also named Salim Malik, Mohammed Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja (India). Jadeja was banned for 4 years, while Azharuddin was banned for life.
Herschelle Gibbs and Henry Williams were suspended from playing international cricket for 6 months. Gibbs was also fined R60,000 and Williams R10,000, while Strydom received no punishment.
On October 23, 2008: A Pakistan court lifts the life ban imposed on Malik for his involvement in match-fixing.
August 10, 2009: The ICC said that its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit (ACSU), found "no evidence" to support suggestions that Pakistan players had contact with Indian bookmakers during their tour of Sri Lanka after some of the team players complained to team Manager Yawar Saeed that persons they had suspected to be bookmakers had tried to contact them at the Hotel.
August 10, 2009: An audio tape of a phone conversation between Mohammad Illyas, a Pakistan selector, and Saleem Altaf, the PCB's chief operating officer, alludes to match-fixing in the ICL. Illyas, father-in-law of Imran Farhat, who played in the ICL, accuses Lahore Badshahs players of having fixed matches.
On May 15, 2010, Pakistani leg-spinner Danish Kaneria, who plays for Essex, and young fast bowler Mervyn Westfield were arrested by Essex Police on Suspicion of conspiracy to commit fraud following alleged spot fixing revelations during an Essex's Pro 40 match against Durham.
August 29, 2010: One of the biggest scandals to have hit Pakistan Cricket takes place following the "News of the World" expose which showed Mazhar Majeed, a British Property developer and Sports agent rigging the Lords Test Match between England and Pakistan.
Taking note of the situation ICC's Anti Corruption unit teams up with the Metropolitan police who are leading the inquiry into the allegation that two bowler Mohammad Aamer and Mohammad Asif deliberately bowled no balls at the Lord's.
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